The Acknowledgements give an opportunity for the authors to thank people who helped with the study or preparation of the paper. This includes anyone who provided technical assistance to the authors, took care of the animals, or provided reagents or equipment. The authors may want to thank anyone who had helpful discussions with them or contributed less tangible concepts. This is also where the authors may indicate that the results of this study were presented in another form, such as a poster or abstract or at a symposium. Finally, practical matters such as present addresses of contributing authors are listed here.

Basic Information

Title the Acknowledgements with the word "Acknowledgements" as a level 1 header after any Note Added in Proof.

Authors cannot thank each other in the Acknowledgements. This includes expressing their continuing respect and admiration of a deceased co-author (for more information, see Deceased Author Footnote). When the authors ask for a dedication to be placed in their paper, a request that is frequently of significant emotional importance to them, then this necessitates a query to them (at manuscript stage). You must explain to them that APS does not use dedications and that the statement will be removed. If the author still insists upon the dedication, then open a dialogue with them as to why they specifically appreciate their deceased colleague. The dedication can then be reworded so that the late person's contribution is acknowledged. For example, change "We dedicate this work to the deceased Dr. Moriarty" to "We acknowledge Dr. Moriarty for discovering the process of logical thought in brain neurons."

Authors cannot thank the reviewers of their article. This could be considered as favoritism or an attempt to encourage reviewers to accept their manuscript for reasons other than scientific merit.

Authors cannot thank those who cannot directly receive their appreciation: that is, authors cannot thank God, Jesus, Buddha, Mohammed, Zeus, etc. for influencing or inspiring them.

Different concepts (author appreciation, result presentation, and present addresses) each have their own paragraph within the Acknowledgements. The second paragraph and all following paragraphs are coded using the «p» code.

Statements are all in active voice. Delete the words "would like to," "wish to," or "want to."

Abbreviations used in the text may be used without definitions. All other abbreviations (like chemicals or institutions) must be written out or defined.

Thanking People, Institutions, and Companies

Honorifics that indicate gender and marital status (Mr., Ms., and Mrs.) should be deleted. Honorifics that indicate advanced degrees (such as Dr. or Prof.) or military rank should be retained. Authors of the paper are referred to by their first initial followed by their last name, and they do not receive any honorifics (no Dr. or Prof. for them).

Avoid the use of pronouns indicating possession, like his, her, or their. Sentences may have to be slightly restructured for readability.

Retain and write out terms associated with specific companies such as corporation, incorporated, or limited.

Acknowledging That Results Have Been Presented Elsewhere

If the results were presented as an abstract in a journal, then there should be a citation relating to this. This citation can be as a numbered reference in the References or given as a full citation with the authors, title, journal, volume, page numbers, and year provided.

If the results were presented as part of scientific meeting, symposium, or other gathering, then there is some relevant information that should be given. At the very least, the name of the gathering and year should be cited. Other helpful items include the location of the gathering (city and state or country) and the full date of the occasion.

Present Addresses of Authors

If the corresponding author has a new (present) address, then it is stated in the footnote on the Title page (see Footnotes). For all other authors, list their present addresses as separate paragraphs. E-mail address do not have to be included.




The authors thank Igor Henchman for technical assistance and Dr. Frankenstein for constructing the human model. We also thank the Umbrella Corporation providing the T1 virus.

«p»Portions of this study have been presented in abstract form at the Annual Symposium of Mad Science, Raccoon City, KS, on May 3, 2005. 

«p»Present address of A. Sample: Dept. of Hypothetical, Univ. of Maybe, Somecity, Anywhere 10101 (e-mail:

«p»Present address of A. Nother: Dept. of Supposition, Univ. of Assumption, Thatcity, Anyplace 10202 (e-mail: