Sample Journal Reference

Here is the general form used, with coding, fonts, and punctuation included:



tTitle. Journal Name vol: page range, year.

Here are a few examples (with many different idiosyncrasies):


ad'Amour J-P and D'Coeur M.

tThe international language. I. How do you know? Romance 4: 887-903, 1834.



aMi Casa H Jr and Su Casa U.

t[My house is your house.] Donde Esta Am Suppl 77: S127--S145, 1967.



aWriters in Search of Relevance.

tWho writes this stuff? It's difficult when you can't think of anything: perils of an author (Abstract). Am Writer 53: 23-25, 2006.

Basic Information

Suffixes like Jr, II, and III go after the author's initials (with no commas or periods).

The title of the journal article includes all proper punctuation. Sometimes articles are part of a series, as denoted by the roman numerals.

Titles in brackets indicate that the title has been translated from a foreign language. Retain the brackets, and do not indicate exactly which language was used.

Abstracts cited in the Reference list must be labeled as such. The term "(Abstract)" is placed at the end of the title. If the article is only one page long and is not labeled as an abstract, query the author. No other types of articles, like invited reviews or letters to the editor, are labeled this way.

The journal name is italicized and abbreviated as per Medline (PubMed). No periods are used. Acronyms in journal titles are closed up with all caps and no periods.

The volume number directly follows the journal title and is roman. No issue or part numbers are used, even if provided by the author. For supplements, the volume and supplement numbers are roman, but the abbreviation "Suppl" (with no period) is italic, e.g., Heart 8, Suppl 2: 1-3, 1987. Some journals publish supplements that are incorporated into the name of the journal; in that case, the entire journal name is italic, e.g., Capt Log Suppl 8: 1-3, 2045.

Volume numbers are followed by a colon.

There is a space between the volume number and page range.

Years are not followed by "a," "b," etc.; delete these letters.

Remove any bracketed information not directly related to the reference itself, like [see comments] or [see discussion].

Submitted and In Press Articles

APS policy does not permit the citation of unaccepted, unpublished references. If a reference ends with "submitted," "in preparation," or "work in progress," delete the reference (do not renumber the Reference list). You then have to change the in-text citation so that it reads as follows: (A. Author, B. Author, and C. D. Author, unpublished observations). Note the form of the authors' names: initials (unbumped and with periods) followed by their surnames. Finally, query the author to inform them of the changes and to make sure that there isn't new information regarding the article.

However, APS does permit the citation of references that have been accepted for publication but not yet published. If that occurs, then the citation should include the term "in press." For example,

tRabid infighting in politics. J Obvious. In press.

Note that in press citations do not include a year. Make sure to query the author to update the information.

If the in press article is an AJP article, then see American Physiological Society Article References.

Here is an example query for a submitted reference:

"APS policy does not permit the citation of unaccepted articles for publication. Therefore, the reference has been deleted and the citation replaced by the term 'unpublished observations.' Please do not renumber the Reference list. If the article has been accepted for publication, please provide the full information so that the reference may be added again."

American Physiological Society Article References

APS references are slightly different than those of other publications, and special attention is paid to them because, well, they're our journals! You have to spend a bit more time making sure that the reference is correct, because it is a little embarrassing to have one of our publications be inaccurate. Here are some notes regarding APS journal references:

Change written out Greek letters in the title to the actual Greek letter ("alpha" to α, "beta" to β, etc.).

All AJP volume numbers up to 231 include only the title Am J Physiol. After volume 231 (1977), AJP was split into subjournals. Therefore, citations for AJP articles after volume 232 include the full journal name and letters in the page range. The full volume number (not the individual journal volume) should be cited as well as the correct year. The Codecheck function in the Toolkit will verify this for you.

DOI numbers in references.

If an article has been accepted but not yet published, you must include a DOI number with the reference. When the article is published online, the DOI number will be linked to the reference itself so that readers can access the reference as well. Here is an example: Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. First published February 21, 2003; doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00490.2002.

Only APS journal articles should include the DOI number in the Reference list.