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Author Line

First names may be spelled out or only given as initials. Follow the original manuscript.

Initials are always spaced with periods (e.g., M. S. Smith) except when hyphenated (e.g., M.-S. Smith).

Name prefixes such as Van, De, Der, La, Le, etc. should be left capitalized or lowercase, according to how they are given in the manuscript. 

Compound proper names are capitalized after the hyphen; e.g., Jean-Michel.

Use a comma before "and" with three or more authors.

Affiliation Superscripts

If the manuscript has more than one author and more than one affiliation, use superscripted numbers to match individual authors with their corresponding affiliations.

If the manuscript has only one author, or multiple authors but only one affiliation, then no superscripts are necessary.

Affiliation superscripts go outside the comma after the author's name, with no space between the comma and the first superscript. Multiple superscripts after an individual author's name are separated by commas but not spaces.

A. E. Van Buren,1,2,3 Jill Jones,2,4 and John Smith4

See Affiliations for more details and examples.

Deceased Author

Journal style does not permit an article to be dedicated to any of the authors, living or deceased (see Acknowledgments). However, a footnote (known as a "death dagger") to an author's name with date of death is permitted.

Use a dagger symbol (†) to indicate the footnote. The dagger goes outside the comma after the author's name, after any affiliation superscripts, not separated by a comma or space:

A. E. Van Buren,1,2,3† Jill Jones,2,4 and John Smith4

The text of the footnote should be in the following format:

Deceased 14 July 2002.

If an author is listed as "deceased" but does not give a date, query. If no date is provided at proof stage, the footnote may simply read "Deceased."

Equal Contribution Footnote

If two or more authors made equal contributions to the article, they are denoted by a special footnote.

Use an asterisk to indicate the footnote. It is placed outside the comma after the name of each author who contributed equally, after any affiliation superscripts, not separated by a comma or space:

A. E. Van Buren,1,2,3 Jill Jones,2,4* and John Smith4*

The text of the footnote should be in the following format, with authors' names abbreviated to first initials and surnames:

J. Jones and J. Smith contributed equally to this work.

Technical Assistance

Authors may be listed separately as having provided "technical assistance." See Using the Toolkit for more information.

Using the Toolkit

Use the «a» code at the beginning of the author line.

Use the «tech» code at the beginning of the technical assistance line. This should come immediately after the author line in the manuscript. Note that on proof the technical assistance line will look like this:

(With the Technical Assistance of J. Smith and S. Jones.)

However, the parentheses and the phrase "With the Technical Assistance of" are boilerplate text, added automatically by the printer. When copyediting, use only the authors' names, as follows:

«tech»J. Smith and S. Jones

Death daggers and equal contribution asterisks are footnotes; more information on how footnotes are handled in copyediting can be found in Footnotes.

When inserting death daggers and equal contribution asterisks, insert the «fnc» code right before the symbol in the author line. Dagger symbols and asterisks should not be superscripted, nor should the «fnc» code immediately preceding them.

In the footnote section of the manuscript, use the «fn» code to begin the text of an individual footnote. The symbol used for that footnote should appear directly after the code, followed by a space, followed by the footnote text:

«fn»* J. Smith and S. Jones contributed equally to this work.

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last edited 4/30/03