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Three types of footnotes are relegated to the first page only:

(See Author Line for more details about how the deceased author and equal contribution footnotes appear in the author line. See Acknowledgments for more information about the address for reprint requests.)

Numbered footnotes in the text of the article may be located on the first page as well as in the rest of the article. If more than one type of footnote is present on the first page, place them in the following order:

  1. equal contributions footnote (asterisk)
  2. deceased author footnote (dagger)
  3. address for reprint requests (no symbol)
  4. numbered footnotes in text

Numbered footnotes should be indented paragraph-style.

Footnote numbers should be consecutive throughout the paper. Numbers should be Arabic numerals, superscripted, followed by a thin space.

Used only for material that cannot be incorporated elsewhere. Abbreviations, manufacturers, and gifts of materials should be incorporated into the text of the article.

If a footnote contains displayed equations, run the equation into text whenever possible to conserve space.

Using the Toolkit

All footnotes are placed at the end of the manuscript; they will be incorporated into the flow of the article at the printer.

Use the «fnote» code to indicate the beginning of the footnote section, and the «/fnote» code to indicate the end.

Use the «fn» code to indicate the start of an individual footnote. The number or symbol used to call out the footnote in text should come right after the code, followed by a space, followed by the footnote itself.


«fn»1 Supplementary material for this article may be found....


Use the «fnc*» code to call out footnotes in text. The asterisk should be replaced with the number of the footnote, so that the callout for footnote 1 is «fnc1». The footnote number comes right after the code.


Footnotes that are called out by nonnumerical symbols use the «fnc» code without a number. The symbol for the footnote comes right after the code.


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last edited 4/30/03