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This is a list of terminology that has appeared in APS journals, with notes on spelling, meaning, context and usage. Note that some terms are shown as highlighted APS Toolkit codes (e.g., «obar»), because the symbols they represent cannot be displayed in a web browser.

If you find any errors in this list or think of a term that should be on it, contact the Web Copy Editor.

A

α1(I), α2(IV) collagens
α1-receptor
α1-tubulin
α-chloralose
α-amylase
A-23187 Ca2+ ionophore
A-65186
A-431 human epidermoid cell line CRL 1555
A band
actin F-actin
A.L.F. DNA Sequencer Pharmacia
A1 receptor noun
A1-receptor adjective (The hyphen is preferred but not required. Follow author's style and make it consistent within the paper.)
abluminal
about change to "sim" before numerals
abscissa horizontal; change to "x-axis"
acepromazine maleate
N-acetyl-l-cysteine
actin α-actin, β-actin
actomyosin
actinomycin
adenylate cyclase
adenylyl cyclase
both are correct; follow author's usage
ad libitum "ad lib" is incorrect
adrenalectomy
adrenaline British; change to epinephrine
adventitia
adventitial
aequorin
afebrile
affect verb — to influence, to pretend, to alter
afterload
Ag-AgCl electrodes
airflow
air space in the lung (space filled with air)
airspace space through which airplanes fly (above a territory)
airstream
airtight
Alconox
aldosterone
allele T allele, G allele
allopurinol
alphaxalone-alphadolone acetate analogue of chromakalim
AM not "a.m." or "A.M."
Amberlite
Ameroid
amniotic
among used for three or more objects
Ampholine
amphotericin B
analgesia
analytic
anaphylactic
anastomose
anatomic
angioplasty
anhydrases
anterocaudal
anti-insulin
arachidonic acid
arcuate
arrhythmias
arteriolar
arteriovenous not arterial-venous
associated
asymmetric
atherosclerotic
atlantooccipital
atrioventricular
autofluorescence
autoregulation
autoregulatory
AvaII
Avertin (M9525)
axis x-axis (horizontal), y-axis (vertical), z-axis

B

β-galactosidase
back-titrate
bacteriologic
bacteriostatic
bakeout noun
BALB/3T3
BALB/c cells 
Balb/cByJ mice
BamH I gene
band pass noun
band-pass adjective
bandwidth
Ba(OH)2 barium hydroxide
based on only a study or report can be based on something; otherwise, change to "on the basis of"
baseline
BaseMaster
BAY K 8644
because of use instead of "due to" when starting a sentence
behavior
bench press noun
bench-press  adjective
benethamine penicillin
benzylpenicillin penicillin G benthamine
best fit
between for two things
Bezold-Jarisch reflex
Bgl I gene
bimodal
BioBreed Wistar rats
Biodex
Bio-Gel P6
biological
BioPilot
BioProcess
Bio-Rad
blood flow
blood gas
blood-brain barrier
bloodstream
Blotto solution containing nonfat dry milk
Boehringer-Mannheim Indianapolis, IN
boluses
Bonferroni
B point noun
B-point adjective
brachiocephalic
brain stem adjective and noun
breath holding noun
breath-hold adjective
Brevital sodium or Brevital
Brij 58 polyoxyethylene 20 cetyl ether
broad band noun
broad-band adjective
bronchopulmonary
budesonide
buildup
bupivacaine
buprenorphrine
bypass
by-product

C

C-3, C-4 etc., denotes carbon atom no. 3 or 4
CA I, CA II, CA IV carbonic anhydrase I, etc.
C57BL/6J-Lepob mice
C5a
Caco-2 cells
Caldini
calmodulin
cannulas e.g, "PE-50"; "PE-205–PE-240"
cannulation
Canon
Carbamalyte
carbon-14 or 14C make consistent within a paper (e.g., "[14C]cyanate")
carboxy not carboxyl terminal
carboxymethylcellulose
carboxypeptidase N
cardiorespiratory
cardiotachometer
cardiotonic
cardiotoxic
cardiotoxicity
CArG box
caspase
cavae
cc change to ml
C2C12 myoblasts
CD4+
cells of Cajal
center line
centripetal
cerebrocortical
cerulein change to caerulein (per Sigma)
C fibers noun
C-fiber adjective
c-fos lowercase f & italics indicates gene
c-Fos uppercase F & roman indicates protein
channel blocker
Charles River rats
chem point no space before or after
chi square test change to χ2-test (use lowercase Greek letter chi)
chloral hydrate
choline
chondroitin sulfate A, B, or C
ChoRE
chronotropic
cis compartment
cisternae
c-jun lowercase j & italics indicates gene
c-Jun uppercase F & roman indicates protein
c-Jun NH3 terminal kinase
ClaI gene
Clarke oxygen electrode
Cl/HCO3 exchanger
clear-cut
closed-chest dogs
c-met
cobalamin
collagen-α1 e.g., collagen-α1(I), collagen-α1(IV)
colorimetric
compared with generally, an experimental group vs. a control group is expressed as "compared with", but "compared to" may be correct if 2 items are remarkably dissimilar
compliance
comprises the whole comprises the parts, the parts compose the whole
concentrations intracellular has a sub i and extracellular has a sub o; use brackets only with element symbol or abbreviation, not with written out words, e.g., [C2+]i, [C2+]o
concomitant
concussive
congener
connexin32
contractures
control do not capitalize as a group name
COOH-terminal (adj.) not C-terminal (carboxy, not carboxyl)
COOH terminus (noun)
Coomassie blue Coomassie® of ICI America
Coomassie brilliant blue
CO-oximeter
Cosmos
cotransporters use hyphen (e.g., Na+-glucose cotransporter)
cotyledons
coverslip
coworker
Coxsackie virus
Crohn's disease
cross bridge (noun)
cross-bridge (adj.)
cross hairs
crosshatch
cross-link (noun, verb, adj.)
cross-linker
crossover (noun, adj.)
cross-reaction
cross-reactivity
cross section (noun)
cross-section (verb)
cross-sectional (adj.)
cross talk (noun)
current Change to "present" except when referring to electricity; change "current study" to "present study" when referring to the article being edited.
cutdown
cutoff
cuvette
cyclic
cyclopentyladenosine
cyclosporin
cyproheptadine
cysteine-HCl
cytochalasin B
cytochrome aa3
cytochrome c
cytochrome-c oxidase note hyphen
cytochrome c reductase no hyphen
cytochrome P-450
Cytodex
cytological
cytoplasmic
cytotoxic

D

Dacron
Dage
Dako is now DakoCytomation, Carpinteria, CA
dead space
decamethonium
degassed
degranulation
Dejours' test
delayed rectifier current
densitometer
2-deoxy-d-[U-14C]glucose
depolymerized
dermatan sulfate
desferrioxamine mesylate
desheathed
desiccant
determine whether change to "determine if"
dextran dextran 70, etc.
diacylglycerol
Diaphot
diffusional
digoxin
dihydropyridine
dihydrostreptomycin sulfate
diphenhydramine
2,3-diphospho-d-glycerate
diprotonated phosphate «h2po4»
diradylglycerol
discernible
distension not "distention"
dithiothreitol
Dohme
dopamine
Dowex
downregulated
DRIgest (Pharmacia)
dry gene
d-tubocurarine
due to means "attributable to"; otherwise change to "because of"
Duncan's multiple range test
Dunnett's multiple range test no hyphen
Dunnett's t-test
dysplasia

E

Eagle's solution
Earle's balanced salts
Earth capitalize when refering to the planet
E-box
echocardiography
E. coli Escherichia coli
Ecolume
EcoRI gene
effect as a verb — to accomplish, complete, bring about
as a noun — an intent, basis meaning, a cause or agent, appearance, fulfillment, the influence, moveable property
effectors
EF-hand domain
eicosanoid
elastomer
electric
electrical
follow author's style
electrophysiological
eledoisin
Elk-1
eluate
eluent
eluting
elution
E-mail
EMD-53998
end point noun
end-expiratory pressure
end inspiration nount
endoplasmic
endotracheal
end plate noun end-plate
end-plate adjective
ensure
enzyme Mn
epidemiologic
epididymis
epifluorescence
epi-illumination
Eppendorf
Epson
erythrocytes change to "red blood cell" if used inconsistently
esterases
ETA receptor ETB receptor
ethrane
etiologic
ets protein
euthanized "killed" is preferred, but do not change if author uses "euthanized"
Evans blue
everted
ExcelGel
exercise-heat stress
exsanguinated
exsanguination
extracorporeal

F

F test
face mask
facilitatory
F-actin
Fair Lawn, NJ
fast-twitch muscle cf. "slow-twitch muscle". Do not use "fast muscle" or "slow muscle".
fiber optic noun
fiber type adjective & noun
fiber-optic adjective
fibers when referring to muscle, can be type IIa, IIb, IIx, IId, etc.
Ficoll
Ficoll-Paque
Finapres
Fischer 344 rats
Fishers
Fishers protected least significant differences test
flow probe
flowmeter
flt-1
fluorescein
fluorochrome
fluoroscopic
Fluosol
-fold onefold, twofold, threefold; 10-fold, 15-fold, 50-fold; "fold difference", "fold change"
footplate
Formalin
formate
forskolin
fourth change to "one-fourth" when used as a fraction; not "a fourth" or "one-quarter"
7-Fr
fragments Fc, Fab, Fab2, F(ab´)2
free radical noun & adjective
free-living adjective
freeze-dry
Freon
fritted
fucoidan
fura-2
fura-2 AM
further change to "furthermore" when used to mean "in addition"

G

[γ- 32P]dATP
g% change to "g/100 ml" or "g/100 g" and query author
GABAergic
gallamine triethiodide
gallbladder
gamma counters do not use Greek letter (cf. "beta counters")
Garamycin
gases preferred over "gasses", but follow author's spelling
gastight
gauge not "G"
Gaussian
1γ2
G cells
Geneticin
geometric
GIBCO a line of products marketed, owned and distributed by Life Technologies.
GIBCO-BRL
gigaseal
glomeruli
glucocorticoid
glutathione
gluteraldehyde
glycogen
G protein no hyphen as noun or adjective
graphic
gray American (English "grey")
greater than change to symbol (">") when used before a number
Griess reaction
guanabenz
guanethidine

H

12:12-h light-dark cycle
H-7
HaeIII
half change to "one-half" when used as a fraction
half relaxation time
half time noun
half-life
half-maximal adjective
half-maximum
half relaxation time no hyphens
half squat noun
half-squat adjective
half-time hyphenated when used as a modifier
halfway
half-width
halothane
Ham's F-10 medium
Ham's F-12 medium
Hanks' balanced salt solution
head-down adjective
head-down-tilt adjective
headspace
heart rate
heartbeat
heartworm
heat-stress adjective
heatstroke
helodermin
helospectin I and II
hematologic
heme-lysinate
hemodynamic
hemorrhagic
hemoximeter
heparan sulfate
heparin
HERITAGE Family Study
Hewlett-Packard
hexamethonium
HincI gene
HindI gene
hindbrain
hind leg
hindlimb
His
histological
1H-NMR
H215O oxygen-15 labeled water
Horsham
HT-29cl.19A "cl." = "clone"
H wave noun
hydralazine
hydration water of hydration, e.g., FeCl3·6H2O
hydrocortisone
hydrosmotic not "hydroosmotic"
hyperoxemia
hyperreactivity
hyperresponsiveness
hypertensiogenic
hypophysial

I

I bands
ibuprofen
125I-labeled albumin
125I-labeled ANG II not "[125I]ANG II"; that would implie that ANG contains iodine, which it does not
125I-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG
imidazole
Immobilon-P, Immobilon-NC
immunologic
111In
Inactin
inbreedings
indexes "indices" is a mathematical term
India ink
indicator-dilution method
indo-1
indomethacin
in-flight
inflowing
in-line
Innovar-Vet
in order to change to "to" when beginning a phrase
inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)
in spite of change to "despite"
Instech
interstitium
intra-arterial
intraperitoneal
intraperitoneally
intrascapular
[14C]inulin
invasively
Invitrogen
125I-[Sar1,Ala8]ANG II
ischemia-reperfusion
isoflurane
isoforms
ISO-NO electrode from WPI
isosmotic not "isoosmotic"
isosmotically
isothiocyanate
isotonicity
isotopes

J

Japanese White rabbits

K

kainic acid
kassinin
keratan sulfate
kinase-It kit
knockout
Kpn I gene
Krebs-Henseleit
Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate
kynurenic acid

L

L3, L4, L5, etc.
L-364,718
L-365,260
L-659,877
labeled
labeling
lactalbumin
LabVIEW
lane 1 always make electrophoresis lanes italic
Langendorff
l-[ring-2,3,4,5,6-3H]phenylalanine
lavage
lay to cause to recline; transitive, passive; past tense = "laid", past participle = "laid", present participle = "laying"
l-cis-diltiazem
lead II
less than change to symbol ("<") when used before a number
[Leu13-(CH2NH)-Leu14 ]bombesin
Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm
Lex-O2-Con
lie

to recline; intransitive, active; past tense = "lay", past participle = "lain", present participle = "laying"

-like 2 syllables or less bump; 3 syllables or more hyphenate
likewise change to "similarly"
linear regression analysis no hyphen
Lineweaver-Burk analysis; no "e" at the end of "Burk"
lipolytic
littermate
lobar
Locke solution
Long-Evans rats
losartan generic for DuP 753
loudspeaker
L-type channels
lumen noun, singular
lumens noun, plural
luminal adjective
luminally
LY-262691
lyophilized

M

μBondapak C18
Mac-3
Mac-3+
malpighian tubules
Mann-Whitney's rank sum test for paired data
Mantel-Haenzel procedure
marathon "marathon race" is redundant
mathematical
MaxEPA tradename for cod liver oil concentrate containing (as % total fatty acid) 18% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 12% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
MAXIscript
M current
mdx mouse
meclofenamate
medium 199
MEN-10207
2-mercaptoethanol
Merck Sharp & Dohme
metallurgical
Met-enkephalin "Met" = "methionine"
methacholine
methylglucamine
methysergide
metyrosine
mg% Change to "mg/100 ml" or "mg/100 mg", query author
MgSO4•7H2O
Michaelis-Menten kinetics
microcautery
microfibril
Microfuge Beckman; generic term is "microcentrifuge"
micron change to "micrometer"
micropipettes
mini bump when used as a prefix
minoxidil
mitogenic
mixed expired adjective
mixed venous adjective
MK-329
ml H2O
mM/l change to "mM"
mmHg (beats/min) not "mmHg beats/min" (avoid having two units of measure side by side without some sort of intervening punctuation)
modeled
modeling
molality moles per kilogram water; "mol/kgH2O"
molar mM or mmol/l; M or mol/l are acceptable abbreviations
molar solution ratio of solute to solvent molecule
molarity moles per liter of solution; use "mosM" (concentration), not "mosmol/l"
molecular mass unit of measure in Daltons (Da)
molecular weight also "mol wt" (this value has no unit of measure — e.g, "mol wt 7,000")
monoacylglycerol
monoglyceride
monomethylarginine
morphogenesis
morphological
morphometric
mOsm Change to "mosM" (molarity, milliosmoles per liter) or "mosmol/kgH2O" (molality)
mosmol change to "mosmol/kgH2O"
motoneuron not "motor neuron"
mouthpiece
Msc I gene
mucous adjective (e.g., "mucous membrane")
mucus noun
multichannel
multiple pulse-injection method
M wave noun
myf-5
MyoD
myofibrillar
myogenically
myograph

N

n–3 use en dash
N-acetyl-LTE4
N-acetyl-l-cysteine
Naja naja atra cobra venom, Sigma
Na+-K+ pump
Na+-K+-ATPase
NASCO Ft. Atkinson, WI
Nembutal
neovascularization
nephrology
nephrotic
neurally
neuroblastoma
neurological
neutropenic
New Zealand White rabbits
newborn
Newman-Keuls test for unpaired data
NH2 terminal not "N-terminal"; hyphenate when used as a modifier
(NH4)2SO4 ammonium sulfate
nicotinic
nifedipine
Nikon
nitrite/nitric oxide
nitroglycerin
nitroprusside
nitroso
nitrosothiol
N-linked (oligosaccharides)
N,N ´-methylene-bis-acrylamide
N2O nitrous oxide
none was not "none were"
Nonidet P-40
nonsteady state noun
non-steady-state adjective
noradrenaline change to "norepinephrine"
nordihydroguaiaretic acid
normoactive
nose clip
NP-40

O

Ω•cm2
ob/ob mouse
OB-Rb isoform
«lrad»OH
1,25(OH)2D3 vitamin D
Ohm's law
oleic
oligo(dT) do not define
omega–3 fatty acids use en dash
Omnipaque
oncotic
one hundred
ophthalmologic
ordinate vertical axis; change to "y-axis"
organelle
organelles
orthostasis
orthostatic
osmium tetroxide
osmolality osmol/kg; 1 liter H2O = 1 kg H2O
osmolarity osmol/l; osM (concentration)
ouabain
overflowed
6-oxo-PGF1α

P

p21
p25A
p60src
pack•yr packs/day × yr of smoking
pampiniform
pancuronium
paraformaldehyde
paramagnetic
pathological
Pavulon
pBluescript
PC-12 cells (ATCC 160)
pCLAMP software
PD-123177
Pearson R correlation
pendelluft lowercase
penicillin G
pentane
pentobarbital sodium not "sodium pentobarbital"
Pentothal Sodium
peptide N-glycosidase
percent adjective
percentage of noun
perchloric
Percoll
periluminal
perinuclear
peristalsis
peristaltic
peritubular
Perpex
petri dish
pGEM3 plasmid
pharmacokinetic
pharmacological
Pharmalyte
phase 1, phase 2, etc set roman if used in reference to oxygen update
PhastGel
PhastSystem
phenobarbital
phentolamine
phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride
Philips
phosphodiesterase
phosphoenolpyruvate
phospholipase A2 PLA2
phosphorous adjective
phosphorus noun
phosphorylase b
physiological may be used with "anatomic" in same sentence; follow author's style but make consistent throughout paper
physostigmine
Pilot
pipette
pipetted
pJG418
planimetry
plethysmography
Plexiglas
plFhGH2
Pluronic
PM not "p.m." or "P.M."
PN 200-110
31P-NMR  also "31P nuclear magnetic resonance"
poly(A) + RNA
poly(dI-dC)
Polybuffer
polycarbonate
Polysciences Warrington, PA
poly-(stylene-co-maleic acid) butyl ester linked derivative of SOD–SM-SOD
polyvinylpyrrolidone
Ponceau S staining
post hoc adjective, not hyphenated
postganglionic
postmortem
postrace
pp60src
pp125FAK
prazosin
preemergent
preepithelial
preganglionic
preincubated
prerace
presynaptically
prior to change to "before"
problematic
Procter and Gamble
proenkephalin also "preporenkephalin"
Pronase
propanol
propranolol
protein A/G agarose
protooncogene
Protosol
p21s
Psa I gene
Pst I gene
pterin
pTRPLEscript
pT7T3
pullulanase
pulsatile
purine
Purkinje
Pvu I gene
Pyrex
pyruvate

Q

quick-freeze verb
quin 2 Ca2+-sensitive dye
quisqualate

R

r2 correlation coefficient
R86 antiserum
radiolabeled
radioligand
radiological
radiometer
radionuclide
radiopaque
ratemeter
ratio "P-to-O2 ratio" or "ratio of P to O2"; ratios do not have units of measure
receptors 1-receptor" (always use hyphen with greek letters); "A receptor"; "D2 receptor" (hyphenate only when used as an adjective)
re-created
red cell change to "red blood cell" if alone; "red cell" may be used as a modifier
reductase
reflexly
repeated-measures adjective
retroperitoneal
RhoA
rhod 2
rhodamine#123
rib cage
Ringer
roll-off
R-R interval spontaneous oscillations of heart period, R wave-R wave
rTI40
ryanodine

S

S-adenosyl-l-[ 3H]methionine
Sal I gene
salbutamol
saphenous
Sarns
scatterplot
Sch-28080
Scheffé's test
scintillator
second messenger do not hyphenate when used as a modifier
senescence
separatory
Sepharose
Sep-Pak C18
serotonergic
serotonin same as "5-HT" (5-hydroxytryptamine)
servo-controlled adjective
servomechanism
servomotor
servo-null
servo-pump
servo-ventilation
set point noun
setup e.g., "experimental setup"
severalfold
SH2, SH3
sialic
side chain
side effect
side hole
sidearm
sidestream
sigmoidal
signaling
signal-to-noise ratio
signed-rank test
silanized, silanization from sialane; the process of rendering hydrophobic a glass surface
Silastic
Silgel
sinoaortic
sinoatrial
Skylab
Sma I gene
SmithKline Beecham
so change to "hence"
sodium molybdate
solvating
solvation
sonicate
sorbent
SP6
space shuttle mission
spaceflight
spectrophotometer
spectroscopy
spermatogenesis
spermatogenic
spermine NONOate
spillover
Sprague-Dawley rats
square-wave
85Sr
SR-44866 (6-cyano-2,2-dimethyl-4-(1,2-dihydro-2-oxo-1-pyridyl)chromene analog of chromakalim
stainless steel do not hyphenate as noun or adjective
Staphylococcus aureus
Statham model P23 Db
StatView
steady state noun
steady-state adjective
stepwise
stereospecific
sternotomy
stopwatch
strain gauge do not hyphenate as noun or adjective
Stratagene
streamline
streptomycin
Student's t-test
subdermally
submucosal plexus also " plexus submucosus"
substance P
sucrase α-dextrinase also "sucrase-isomaltase"
sulfonylurea
sulfoxide
Survanta
[35S]UTP
SV40
SYBRgreen
Sylgard
symmetrical use "symmetric" if "asymmetric" is used in the same paper; make consistent throughout
sympathoadrenal
sympathoexcitation
sympathoinhibition
sympathoinhibitory
systematic
systemic vascular resistance measured in dyn•s•cm–5

T

T-61 euthanasia solution
tachycardia
tachyphylactic
T7 RNA polymerase
Taq I gene
Taq DNA polymerase
taurine
99mTc
T cell noun
T-cell adjective
Teflon
telefax
terminal adjective
terminus noun
tesla lowercase when spelled out; capital "T" when abbreviated
tetramethylrhodamine
tetraplegic "quadriplegic" preferred
tetrazolium
tetroxide
the Midwest
thermostated
thioglycollate
thiopental sodium
thoracotomy
though change to "although"
time course
time to peak tension no hyphens
T lymphocte noun, no hyphen
Torr used for gas pressure
toward not "towards"
tracheal
tracheostomy
tracheotomy
trans compartment
transmural
transporters Na+-K+-2Cl (also "sodium-potassium-2-chloride")
transseptal
transthoracic
triethylamine
trihydrate
Tris•HCl
tritiated 3H added
Triton X-100
Trypan blue
trypsin
trypsinized
t-tubular
T tube
T tubules
tubuli
Tukey's test
T wave noun
T-wave adjective
Tween 80
two hundred
type I, IIa, IIb, etc. myofibers
Type 2 diabetes
[Tyr5,d-Trp6,8,9,Lys10]-α-NKA fragment 4-10

U

U-46619
ubiquinol
ubiquinone
U-compounds
Ultrafuge generic version = "ultracentrifuge"
ultrastructural
unanesthetized
unconjugated
upon change to "on"
urethane
USB United States Biochemical; always spell out
using watch out for dangling participles — change to "by using"
uteroplacental
U-test

V

V1 isoenzyme
vasculogenesis
vasodilatation
vasodilating
vastus lateralis muscle
Velcro
ventilatory
vesical
vesicles
Veterans Affairs not "Veterans Administration"
video camera
video monitor
videotape
Vigne
viscoelastic
vitamin D 1,25(OH) 2D3

W

Wacker
warm-up noun
warm up verb
wash out transitive verb
washout noun
water bath
wave front
waveform
waveguide
wavelength
wavemeter
waveshape
WEB 2086
weight lifting noun and adjective
where denotes location; change to "when" or "in which" otherwise
while use only when time is an element, change to "whereas" or "although" otherwise
whole body
whole cell
whole organ
widespread
Wilcoxon's rank sum test (for paired data)
windkessel lowercase
Wistar rats
Wistar-Kyoto rats
Wood units

X

x-axis
Xa activity
Xba I gene
133Xe
Xenopus laevis
X-ray
X-Y plotter
xylenol orange
Xylocaine

Y

yohimbine

Z

zacopride
Z disk nuon
Z-disk adjective
zeitgeber lowercase
zeroth
ZnSO4 zinc sulfate
zone 1, 2, 3
zone I, II, III

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last edited 06/07/05