General Guidelines on Styles

Introduction to the Style Manual Editing

Style manual writing and editing follow a set of rules and guidelines to write for publications, journals and other academia related works. They use a citation format that sounds/looks professional, generally published by the APA and the MLA.

Fundamentals of Copyediting

Copyediting is the revision of the written material, that helps in enhancing and improving the process of readability, whilst ensuring that the material is grammatically correct, with minimalistic errors.


It refers to the process of changing or enhancing the appearance and the format of the essays or written material. This process is mainly performed to strengthen the structure of the written material like the placement of headings, sub-heading, and alignment and so on.


It is the process of writing an article to express the thought process in a particular manner, from the readers or the author's point of view. It is also typically limited to the language characteristic of an individual.

Formatting APS Journal

Company and Product Names

Company and product names are also an important part of the citations as they’re essential in referring to the written material.

APS Specific Departments and Titles

These provide the guidelines on the ways to write headings and titles of a citation or a journal, either for academic or professional purposes.

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How To Reference A Journal In Aps Style


The APS citation style is a writing style and format used in academic documents like scholarly journal books and articles. It is often seen in citing sources within the field of social and behavioural sciences. There are 2 main citation styles. One was laid down by the American Psychological Association (APA) and the other was laid down by the American Psychological Society (APS). There are a number of rules and regulations that need to be taken into consideration while citing a journal or book using APS style. These rules are discussed below.



The title should be capitalized both before and after a proper noun or name.

In running text, occupational titles such as Professor, President, Officer, Chair, Director, Counselor, Ambassador, etc. need to be capitalized.

Titles on display such as in an event program card or in video graphics (when the title appears below a name) must be duly capitalized.

All caps text must be strictly avoided unless specifically mentioned or absolutely necessary.

Published Works

All nouns, pronouns, adjectives and adverbs must be capitalized.

The first and last words must be capitalized irrespective of the length of word or part of speech

Prepositions having four, or more than four, letters as well as how, if, and why need to be capitalized.

Articles (a, an, the) should not be capitalized.

Prepositions with 3 or less than 3 letters should not be capitalized.

Conjunctions of three or fewer words should not be capitalized.

Hyphenated Compounds in Titles

Capitalize the first word when a title style hyphenated compound appears in the text. Similarly capitalize all the subsequent words in the compound except for articles, coordinating conjunctions and prepositions of three or fewer words.

Verbs, even the short ones need to be capitalized.

When it comes to pronouns, not a single one of them, however small, should not be uncapitalized.


Every heading should be in title case and must follow all the same rules and regulations as titles for published works.

Company and Product Name

The name of a company should be capitalized as it presents itself to the public. Some companies employ intercaps (for example FedEx, PayPal, iPhone etc.) while some use punctuation marks (Yahoo!)

Academic Degrees

An academic degree must be capitalized when given in full.

The periods in academic degree abbreviations must be excluded.


APS Specific Department Titles

In sentences, general APS terms like units, meetings, journals etc. should not be capitalized.

However nouns that refer to specific APS products like APS March Meeting, APS Fellows, APS Education and Diversity etc. must be capitalized.

Pronouns That Are Used To Refer To Companies

Use the third-party singular pronoun ‘it’ and ‘its’ while referring to your own or another company. In the case of the United States of America, a company is seen as a collection of people, hence a collective noun needs to be used to refer to it, requiring a singular pronoun and a single verb.

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